Non-vessel operating common carrier’s (NVOCC) are a form of freight forwarder, taking bookings for less-than-container-loads (LCLs) and combine LCLs to make a full container under one bill of lading. NVOCCs do not own or operate ships, instead they book space on ships and sell it in smaller quantities, consolidating freight for transport in standard containers. The NVOCC issues its own bill of lading containing virtually the same data fields as the corresponding Master Bill of Lading issued by the vessel operator. The Master Bill of Lading is a contract issued by the ocean carrier and between the NVOCC and their agent (at origin or destination). NVOCC’s buy services from ocean carriers and are able to mark-up freight costs as they resell these services to their clients.